By – Aditya Katayan

In The Supreme Court of India

Citation1994 SCC (4) 1, JT 1994 (3) 492
Date of the Case4th May 1994
PetitionerJai Laxmi Salt LTD
Respondent(s)State of Gujarat
Bench/JudgesJustice Sahai, R.M., Justice Kuldip Singh
Statutes/Constitution InvolvedConstitution of India
Important Sections/ ArticlesArticle 133(1) (a) of the Constitution of India; Article 36 of the Limitation Act; Article 120 of the Constitution of India.


JAI LAXMI SALT LTD. V. Province OF GUJARAT case is a milestone case since it chooses when the state could be expected to take responsibility for its careless demonstration. The guiltlessness of normal residents was mulled over while choosing the case.


In 1954 the State of Gujarat arranged recovery of “Bundh”(Dam) to make arrives in that are Saltish. The bundh was finished in 1955. The litigant who is the proprietor of Jai Laxmi Salt Pvt. Ltd. composed commonly to the concerned experts recorded as a hard copy for either to leave or to change the area of weirs so that the bundh wouldn’t influence the litigant’s processing plant premises, yet this solicitation rarely acquiesced and at the hour of the substantial storm the appealing party on tracking down the degree of water rising specialists to demand them to diminish the degree of water to keep away from yet the raced to the expanded stream close to the appealing party plant yet the specialists didn’t trouble because of which the industrial facility premises of the appealing party got immersed on fifth July 1956. After the flood subsided the premises the litigant drew nearer for the pay which was around four lakh, however the Govt. needed It to be secretly surveyed then an authority council was outlined on 24th August 1956 which determined the misfortune endured to be Rs. 1,58,735 and the sum were not paid, so the appealing party recorded a suit for the remuneration. The preliminary court excused the suit on grounds of the immersion being brought about by Act of God, with no carelessness in weirs development and because the suit is banished by time.


A tort is a common wrong, and it etymologically implies direct which is bent or screwy, i.e., not straight or right. As indicated by Winfield, “convoluted law emerging from, break of an obligation principally fixed by law; this obligation is towards people by and large and its penetrate is redressable by an activity for unliquidated harms”. For the most part, misdeeds are acts that are managed without worthy motivation or pardon. The two fundamental elements of misdeed are injury and harm.

They are found in the agreement additionally, however, they are pre-controlled by the gatherings. The law of misdeed is an infringement of a right in rem, while the agreement law is an infringement of a right in personam. Responsibility in misdeed, which over the long run has gotten known as the ‘exacting obligation’, ‘total risk’, ‘flaw responsibility’ and ‘neighbour closeness’ has steadily developed and solidified over the long haul. Total obligation or unique use implying more serious risk to other people and flaw responsibility are different structures that produce unlawful activities.

This is unmistakably clarified on account of “Jay Laxmi Salt Works v. the State of Gujarat” when the state could be considered answerable for its careless demonstrations. The honesty of normal residents was mulled over while settling on this case. This case has alluded to numerous significant ideas and cases, accordingly preparing for giving equity to the average person.


The allure was recorded in Gujarat High Court which held that the risk as articulated in Rylands v. Fletcher’ and as altered by the Supreme Court in State of Punjab v. Present-day Cultivators were not appropriate for this situation and by the quantum of time the suit was banned. Then, at that point, the High Court allowed the endorsement under Article 133(1)(a) of the Indian Constitution. Hon’ble Supreme Court on fourth May 1994 held that the State is obligated to pay the payment for the harm experienced by the appealing party.


  1. Whether Article 36 of the Limitation Act, 1908 or Article 120 applies in the present case?
  • Whether the rule of strict liability as derived in Rylands v. Fletcher by the Supreme Court is invoking Article 36 of Limitation Act? 


  • Article 133(1) (a) of the Constitution of India: – This article says that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance.
  • Article 36 of the Limitation Act: – Definition In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, the State has the same meaning as in Part III.


  • After the flood receded the appellant approached the authorities and the Government for redress and claimed damages of approximately Rupees Four Lakhs.
  • It was asked by the Government to get it privately assessed, and the Chief Engineer Charotar Gram Udhar Sahkari Mandali Limited, Vallabh Vidyanagar did submit a report on 30th August, 1956.
  • On 24th August, 1956 an Official Committee was appointed and the Committee found that the appellant had suffered a loss of Rs 1,58,735.
  • Since this amount was not paid the appellant filed the suit for damages against the State.
  • Amongst many defences raised the two main were that there was no negligence either in the construction of the bundh or in the action of the officers and the suit was barred by time.
  • In’ respect of the quantum determined by the Committee it was claimed that it was not acceptable to the State Government.


While the High Court administered the judgment for the Respondent i.e., the State of Gujarat on the premise that the development of Dam was not a non-normal demonstration the principle motivation behind the development was the government assistance of the general population, the Supreme Court decided that even though the development of the Dam was a non-regular demonstration, this doesn’t suggest that the Government can leave its duty of care that it owes to the overall population.

Likewise, the High Court expressed that the Suit was time-banished as it ought to have been documented inside 2 years as per Article 36 of the Limitation Act, 1908, however was recorded following 2 years, 11 months and 15 days. The Supreme Court decided that this case ought not simply be restricted to the limited extent of Article 36, all things considered, Article 120 will be applied and a Suit can be recorded within 6 years. The time contemplated for recording the Suit ought not to be assessed from the date when the development of the Dam started however from when the mishap occurred. The court likewise cited that the litigant can’t guarantee harm from the day when the development started because according to Torts Law, a case for remuneration must be made after the injury has been caused.

The court additionally had the effect between impropriety, non-feasance and misfeasance quite clear. Wrongdoing and non-feasance acquire rationale, goal and vindictiveness. Wrongdoing and misfeasance fundamentally import expectation, information and noxiousness; thusly, they may not be appropriate in each tortious obligation emerging out of infringement of public obligations. Evil doing or sick lead hypothesizes something more than simple commission or exclusion. Then again, Non-feasance is the exclusion to release an obligation, yet the oversight to bring about activity in misdeeds should have one out of malignance or dishonesty. Subsequently, Misfeasance, Malfeasance and Non-feasance would just apply in specific situations where either the officials of the State are at risk not just for penetrating of care and obligation, it ought to likewise be upheld by vindictiveness or dishonesty. In this specific case, even though there was carelessness concerning the State and its Officials in the development of the Dam, the terms Misfeasance, Malfeasance and Non-Feasance would not be proper to fit for this situation as they import more extensive implications.

Fourthly, The Bench didn’t think about the proportion of the instance of Rylands v. Fletcher however offered inclination to the standard created by American Courts on trench breaks and applied the rule of ‘flaw obligation, which was additionally very clear from the conditions. Thus, the perspective on the High Court that the standard of exacting obligation, which was changed on account of State of Punjab v. Present-day Cultivators, doesn’t matter to the current case. Exacting Liability and Faulty Liability don’t go together.

In the middle of Strict Liability and Fault Liability, there may be different conditions in which one gathering is qualified to sue for harm. Even though the dam was being worked for the local area, it was a fundamental capacity and the utilization of land or water was not a demonstration of the non-regular client. Yet, this doesn’t vindicate the State’s duty towards its residents for such infringement which bring about harm or wounds. The central matter of concern is the injury and not how it was caused. On the off chance that the reason for misfortune or harm is the disappointment of obligation, either broad or explicit, the activity under Tort Law comes into the spotlight.

Consequently, the allure was fruitful. The court granted Rs. 1,58,735 alongside three premium sections of 6%, 9%, and 12% up to January 1993.

According to Justice R.M. Sahai, the fundamental thought of the Law of Torts is established and in light of the ethical point that nobody has the privilege to harm or damage somebody purposefully or even guiltlessly. Thusly, it would be a slip-up for the Court to disregard the carelessness of the State and empty the Appellant of his right of the case of pay.


The Law of Tort is enormously affected by the socio, monetary and political changes of the general public. This law is an aftereffect of association among law and ethical quality. The remuneration was important to give to the appealing party for this situation else it would have made more prominent unfairness to him. An everyday person, in a non-industrial nation, will think that it’s an enormous assignment to organize the court charges and not be given equity because the state acted carelessly while doing the government assistance of the residents and thus, he ought to be given equity. Thusly, it ought not to be inflexibly applied in careless cases; rather there ought to be the more noteworthy degree to incorporate evolving society.

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